Men may develop an enlargement of breast tissue, known as gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and a reduced sperm count. Two or more batches of rats are castrated and given no treatment and respectively some AAS of interest. Journal of Health Psychology. Clinical trials on humans, involving either oral doses of methyltestosterone or injections of testosterone propionatebegan as early as Known possible side effects of AAS include:
Compounds with a high ratio of androgenic to an anabolic effects are the drug of choice in androgen-replacement therapy e.
A commonly used protocol for determining the androgenic: The act was amended by the Anabolic Steroid Control Act ofwhich added prohormones to the list of controlled substanceswith effect from January 20, The upper region of the body thorax, neck, shoulders, and upper arm seems to be more susceptible for AAS than other body regions because of predominance of ARs in the upper body. High doses of oral AAS compounds can cause liver damage. The pharmacodynamic action of AAS begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor AR located in the cytoplasm of that cell.